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Wednesday, January 17, 2018

Tiger Conservation: Securing Food

Most of the protected areas that have registered an uptick in population of the tigers have also experienced an uptick in prey base. This has happened simultaneously along with improvement of the habitat after relocation of villages from the core zone or the critical tiger habitats.  

Predators are totally dependent upon prey base population for survival and breeding. The two categories of animals are inextricably linked and one cannot think of conserving the tertiary predators in absence of adequate prey base. 

The big cats intake includes spotted deer, sambar, wild boar, gaur, swamp deer and langur in descending order. Outside the core area frequent consumption of livestock chiefly cattle takes place. But this is the bone of contention which endangers the species at  the hands of the locals. Though the compensation plan mitigates the ire the incidence does create a grudge against the animal which could prove as further detriment for the existence of the already beleaguered species in India.  

The Project  Tiger Program in India is certainly inclusive and has been successful in preserving the ecosystems as whole. With proper implementation tiger populations have increased and could increase further.   

The positive number game has favoured the predators immensely and with increased breeding and protection. Subsequently the overflow of prey base into the buffer has also resulted in marginal increase in tiger population in the zone. Marginally because many big cats inhabiting the core areas have included parts of buffer zone within their territorial command. Hence the density though appears to have increased it is not the case. Well not to that extant.

There are tigers inhabiting the far regions of buffer zone where ever sufficient area is contained and wood logging and poaching is restricted. This is where challenge arises by the virtue of constant man animal conflict,  frequent transgressions, timber felling and poaching. The prey base is most susceptible in far flung areas whence inadequate protection mechanism is in picture. 

This is also the case of our reserve forests outside the purview of protected areas. Though infrequent incidence of the carnivores presence comes to our notice now and then these are the grounds with virtually none or scare prey base. Poaching is major threat in such areas while wood logging could be regular. Hence hope of saving the species lies within the precincts of the protected areas in India.     

As a smart strategy greater concentration is accorded to hitherto badly ravaged areas within the core and the viable corridors. Once these areas have been replenished with prey base the focus should include the buffer zone inhabited by humans, their farms and livestock. There is a tremendous biotic pressure in the buffer zone with scores of villages settled post relocation exercise. 

Many areas of the buffer zones have been degraded due to human pressure namely wood logging and indiscriminate grazing. Wetlands and other water bodies have experienced severe stress and need to be brought back. Creation of new water bodies wherever possible is an urgent requirement. Poaching though appears to be sporadic can run uncontrolled as many areas are neglected or could be deliberately overlooked by the patrol teams. Wildlife disease management is another important issue which is certainly being addressed in the core. 

Extensive afforestation programmes have to be initiated in order to create a habitable ecosystem. Human activities have to be contained, and no commercial activities should be permitted at all including construction of private houses.   

The buffer zones would be crucial inclusion in tiger conservation activities if the population has to sufficiently increase. Perhaps the number game if successful would fetch the tiger out of its critically endangered status and perhaps preserves the species forever. 

Though this malady exists possibly in all tiger reserves, Kanha sets a fine example. The population of gaur, chital, wild boar and sambar have definitely increased in the buffer augmenting more habitable regions for the tigers. But here too cases of sporadic poaching using various means especially electrocution surface now and then. 

Installation of solar based fencing which accord a mild shock is the answer to prevent man animal conflict or reduce the instances. Though this may appear as wishful thinking relocation from buffer or containing local or migrant populations would benefit immensely. Excessive human intrusion and activities especially livestock grazing could have a negative impact on the wilderness.      

At the moment things seem to be moving upwards greater efficiency and innovative management techniques along with strong political will can secure the future of the tiger in India. Perhaps forever.   

        
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